© 1978-2018 TKTV, LLC.

     TKTV

 

  Producers of High Tech

  Solutions to the World's

   Highest Profile Clients

         Since 1978

          "We have the ability to preserve history, it is our duty to do so."

 

    The TKTV Artifact Team has taken on the challenge of preserving history with several new cutting edge technologies

       and processes we designed specifically for museums, historical sites, archeology sites, and private art collections.

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SERVICES

 

All of our Application services are custom designed for each unique clients needs. We provide solutions in Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality, and Augmented Reality Apps created specifically to fulfill three prime directives:

1) Immersive User Experience

2) Improve Productivity through   Employee Efficiency

3) Reduce Legal Exposure and Financial Risk

 

Television production services include network broadcast TV production, syndicated programming, cable TV network production, web video content and corporate video.

 

TV transmission services include satellite uplink or Ad-Hoc satellite downlink TVRO, satellite space segment, fiber optic transmission and microwave transmission services, streaming services....

PROJECTS

 

The TKTV team has provided high tech consulting & services in all 50 US States and 73 countries around the world.

We are currently designing Apps for major industry sectors including Hospitality, Medical, and Travel & Leisure with a special emphasis on Art.

 

Our TV division has brought together a team of experienced television producers with more than ten thousand completed television shows and over three hundred years combined expertise. The team members have won 17 Emmy Awards with more than 65 Emmy Award nominations. We have been part of the world's largest audience shows including Olympic Games,  Academy Awards, Superbowls, World Series, Stanley Cup Finals, NBA Finals, Golden Globes, MTV Video Music Awards, Comic Relief, Victoria's Secret Fashion Show....

CLIENTELE

 

For more than 40 years we have provided cutting edge technology to the world's highest profile clients.

 

We have worked with State, Federal and Foreign Governments. Including working with 5 Presidents of the United States, the US Department of Defense and all branches of the Armed Services, several Cabinet Departments, as well as numerous Senators and members of Congress.

 

We have produced, co-produced and/or transmitted over 6000 LIVE TV shows working with over 100 television networks.

 

We have provided Technical Consulting Services to leading industry sector corporations including McDonalds, American Airlines, Intel, Northrop, AARP, Ford, Disneyland, Microsoft....

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glossary of High Tech Terms in AI, VR, AR, and Television Production &Transmission

 

  • 3D Stereoscopy, any technique capable of recording three-dimensional visual information or creating the illusion of depth in an image.

  • 4K UHD 4K resolution is a generic term for display devices or content having horizontal resolution on the order of 4,000 pixels. In the movie projection industry, Digital Cinema Initiatives is the dominant 4K standard.The TV industry has adopted ultra high definition television (UHDTV) as its 4K standard.

  • Access The ability to be on a satellite or part of a network.

  • ADC Analog-to-Digital Conversion. Process of converting analog signals to a digital representation. DAC is the reverse translation.

  • Ad-Hoc Special purpose; as needed; one time only event.

  • ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Broadband technology used over existing terrestrial wires to deliver high bandwidth to homes.

  • Affiliate Independently owned broadcast station that contracts with a network to air that network's programming.

  • Air Time Time at which an event is broadcast.

  • AM Amplitude Modulation. Process in which base band signal varies the amplitude or height of the carrier wave to create the desired information content.

  • Amplifier Device used to boost the strength of an electronic signal.

  • Analog Non-Digital waveform signal most common in satellite videoconferencing and network backhauls. A device having an output that is proportional to the input.

  • ANIK Canadian domestic satellite system that transmits Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's (CSC) network feeds throughout the country. Also carries long distance voice and data services throughout Canada and some transborder service to the U.S. and Mexico.

  • Antenna Electro magnetic equipment which sends or receives radio signals. Most common mis-reference is satellite "dish", see: Reflector

  • Aperture Cross section of antenna exposed to the satellite signal.

  • Apogee Point in an elliptical satellite orbit that is farthest from the surface of the earth.

  • Artificial Intelligence or AI computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation

  • ASIC Application Specific Integrated Circuit. Integrated circuit designed for or by the end-user for a proprietary application.

  • Arc The location of all satellites above the equator, also known as "Clark Belt"

  • ATM High-speed packet switching technology organized into standard 53 byte cells. Data is sent character by character with a start and stop pulse for each one.

  • Attenuation Loss in power of electromagnetic signals between transmission and reception points.

  • Audio Bridge A devise that connects multiple phone lines commonly used in conferencing.

  • Audio Sub-carrier The location of the audio signal during transmission.

  • Audio Conference A voice only conference, no video.

  • Augmented Reality or AR technology that superimposes a computer-generated image on a user's view of the real world, thus providing a composite view.

  • Azimuth The horizon to horizon location of a satellite from a particular point on Earth measured in degrees.

  • Basic Cable Channels received by cable subscribers at no extra charge, supported by advertising and small per-subscriber fees paid by cable operators.

  • Backhaul Original transmission sent to a network before re-broadcast w/commercials.

  • Bandwidth The amount of space required to transmit a signal.

  • Baseband A transmission medium through which digital signals are sent without frequency shifting. In general, only one communication channel is available at any time.

  • Baud Rate of data transmission based on the number of signal elements or symbols transmitted per second. Most digital signals are characterized in bits per second (bps) and five baud being roughly equivalent to one alphanumeric character.

  • BER or Bit Error Rate Fraction of a sequence of message bits that are in error.

  • BETA SP The common type of recording video for broadcast.

  • Bird Slang term for satellite.

  • Bit Rate The speed of digital transmission measured in bits per second.

  • Broadband General term for any bandwidth greater than a voice frequency bandwidth.

  • Broadcast Transmissions that are intended for reception by the general public.

  • Bps bits per second.

  • BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying. Digital modulation scheme used in transmission communications.

  • BTV Acronym for "Business Television".

  • Cable Head End Point where cable TV systems receive programming for distribution across their network.

  • C-Band Frequency of signal; transmission ( 5.9-6.4 GHz ) & reception ( 3.7-4.2 GHz )

  • Carrier A frequency wave that is transmitted from one earth station through the satellite to another earth station, which is used for channel distribution.

  • CATV Acronym for CAble TeleVision; also Community Antenna Television. System uses a single large antenna to supply a community or building with high-quality reception via cable.

  • Channel A specified frequency band for the transmission and reception of signals. As for television signals, it is normally the final bandwidth stage.

  • Chyron Brand-name for commonly used Character Generator system.

  • Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) A television channel not broadcast for general reception.

  • C/N or Carrier to Noise Ratio. Ratio of received carrier power and noise power in a given bandwidth, expressed in dB. Directly related to G/T and S/N. In a video signal the higher the C/N, the better the received picture.

  • CODEC Coder / decoder -- a system which converts an analog signal to and from a digital signal. Often used in reference to ISDN videoconferencing systems.

  • Common Carrier A regulated telecom company which transmits signal for the public at a fee.

  • Component Video Common for video in it's stage of Red, Green, Blue.

  • Composite Video Common for video prior to modulation.

  • CONUS A satellite beam that covers the CONtinental US.

  • DAMA Demand Assigned Multiple Access -- Multiple digital channels in a transponder.

  • DBS Direct Broadcast Satellite. Service that uses satellites to broadcast multiple channels of television programming directly to home mounted small-dish antennas.

  • dBW The power ratio of decibels relative to one watt. Most common for signal strength measurement.

  • Declination Offset angle of an antenna from the axis of its polar mount as measured in the meridian plane between the equatorial plane and the antenna main beam.

  • Decoder A device used to unscramble an encrypted or scrambled signal.

  • Delay Time it takes for a signal to go from sending station through satellite to receiving station. Delay for a single-hop satellite connection is approximately one-quarter of a second.

  • Demodulation Process for retrieving an information signal that has been modulated onto a carrier.

  • Demodulator Satellite receiver circuit that extracts or "demodulates" the wanted signals from the received carrier.

  • Deviation Modulation level of an FM signal determined by amount of frequency shift from the frequency of the main carrier.

  • Digital Converted information or video/audio into bits of data. Generally used to allow smaller bandwidth for transmission.

  • Digital Bridge A connection of several digital conference sites.

  • Dish Common term for the parabolic or off-sat reflector used to gather signal.

  • Domsat Refers to US domestic satellite

  • Downlink Common for the equipment used to receive satellite signals. aka, TVRO

  • DS3 Digital circuit with standardized operating characteristics and transmitting capacity equal to 28 DS-1 circuits (672 voice-grade circuits, 44.736 Mbps). Used for video transmission.

  • Dual Path Redundancy; The ability to transmit two signals to a satellite at the same time.

  • Duplex Two-way simultaneous transmission.

  • DVB Digital Video Broadcast. Standard of direct-to-home transmission typical of all areas of the world outside of North America.

  • DVB-S Digital Video Broadcast over satellite

  • DVB-S2 Digital Video Broadcast over satellite 2nd generation

  • Earth Station Ground equipment used to transmit and receive signals to & from satellites.

  • Echo Common problem in videoconferencing due to improper mix-minus audio.

  • Edit To "cut;" to alter, correct, or revise video.

  • EIRP or Effective Isotropic Radiated Power -- The signal strength of the satellite transmitter RF power and transmitting antenna gain usually measured in dBW.

  • Elevation A satellite's altitude above the horizon, measured in degrees

  • Encoder The device that digitizes or scrambles a signal.

  • Encryption Encoding or "scrambling" television signals. Used in both business and broadcast television so that unintended audiences are unable to view the signal.

  • ENG Crews Personnel used for Electronic News Gathering. Commonly, a one camera, two to three person video team.

  • FCC Federal Communications Commission.

  • FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access all users share the satellite transponder or frequency channel simultaneously but each user transmits at single frequency.

  • FEC Forward Error Correction codes -- Codes added to the digital signal to monitor and correct errors.

  • Feed Transmission of video programming from a distribution center. Also, feed system of an antenna. Feed system may consist of a sub reflector plus a feed horn or a feed horn only.

  • Feedback Squeal caused by a microphone being too close to an operating loudspeaker.

  • Fiber Optics Mode of transporting signals which uses laser beams through strands of glass.

  • FM Frequency Modulation. Modulation method whereby the base band signal varies the frequency of the carrier wave.

  • Focal Length Distance from the center feed to the center of the dish.

  • Focal Point Area toward which the primary reflector directs and concentrates the signal received.

  • Footprint The are of earth covered by a satellite beam, usually given in EIRP.

  • Format Types of machines and tapes that store video and audio information. Commonly used include VHS, Beta, Beta SP, SX, DV, DVCPRO, and 3/4."

  • Frequency The number of times an alternating current goes through a complete cycle in one second of time. RF means Radio Frequency.

  • Full Duplex A circuit which carries information in both directions at the same time.

  • Full Time Dedicated facilities for a client's exclusive use.

  • Gain Measure of amplification expressed in dB.

  • GEO Slang for satellite Geostationary orbit altitude

  • Global Beam Antenna downlink pattern used by the Intelsat satellites and covers one-third of the globe. Beams are aimed at the center of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans by the respective Intelsat satellites, which enables nations on both sides of the oceans to receive the signal. Because they transmit to such a wide area, global beam transponders have significantly lower EIRP outputs at the surface of the Earth as compared to a US domestic satellite system covering only the continental United States. Therefore, earth stations receiving global beam signals need antennas much larger in size.

  • G/T Gain to Noise-Temperature ratio -- the measurement of gain-to-noise temperature ratio of a receiving system; its sensitivity or "figure of merit."

  • Geosynchronous Orbit An orbit around the Earth, with an average distance from the equator of about 22,236 miles, in which a satellite would have a period equal to the rotation period of the Earth. These satellites are in what's called the "Clark Belt".

  • GHz or Gigahertz A measurement of frequency equal to one billion cycles per second.

  • Half Transponder Method of transmitting two TV signals through a single transponder by reducing each TV signal's deviation and power level. Half-transponder TV carriers operate typically 4 dB to 7 dB below single-carrier saturation power.

  • HDTV Abbreviation for High Definition Television. Much sharper image and a higher quality stereo sound than regular TV signals. Requires much more bandwidth.

  • Headend Receiving and distribution equipment from satellite to CATV.

  • HUB Master station through which all information flows in and out.

  • Hybrid Satellite Satellite that carries two or more different communications payloads; i.e., C-band and Ku-band.

  • IFB Interruptible Feed Back or Internal Feed Back. Normally an ear piece that allows producer, director, etc. to communicate with the talent during a program.

  • Inclination Angle between the orbital plane of a satellite and the equatorial plane of the earth.

  • INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization. Agency that operates a network of satellites for international transmissions for all types of international mobile services, including maritime, aeronautical, and land mobile.

  • Intelstat International Telecommunications Satellite Organization -- a governing body that taffifs international telecommunications traffic.

  • IP Acronym for Internet Protocol

  • IRD Integrated Receiver Decoder -- A receiver which contains a decoder for the reception of a transmission of voice, video and data.

  • ISDN Acronym for Integrated Service Digital Network- Used for digital networks & videoconferencing. ISDN lines are combined for data speeds up to 784Kbps

  • JPEG Joint Picture Expert Group. ISO standard for compression of still pictures.

  • JPEG 2000 is an image compression standard and coding system. It was created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group committee in 2000 with the intention of superseding their original discrete cosine transform-based JPEG standard (created in 1992) with a newly designed, wavelet-based method. The standardized filename extension is .jp2 for ISO/IEC 15444-1 conforming files and .jpx for the extended part-2 specifications, including video

  • K or Kelvin. Temperature measurement scale used in the scientific community. Zero K represents absolute zero and corresponds to -459 degrees Fahrenheit or -273 Celsius. Thermal noise characteristics of LNA are measured in Kelvin

  • Ka Band Frequency range from 18 to 31 GHz.

  • Kbps Kilobits per second. Refers to transmission speed of 1,000 bits per second.

  • KHz Kilo Hertz. Unit of frequency equal to 1,000 Hz.

  • Klystron Type of high-power amplifier that uses a special beam tube.

  • Ku-band Pronounced Kay You. Downlink Frequencies of 11.7 -12.2 GHz range and uplink frequency of 14.0 -14.5 GHz dedicated to use for satellite transmissions.

  • L Band The frequency range from 0.5 to 1.5 GHz. Also used to refer to the 950 to 1450MHz used for mobile communications.

  • LAN Local Area Network. Standard communications architecture, usually referring to computer communications.

  • Latitude The angular distance north or south of the earth's equator, measured in degrees along a meridian.

  • LEO Slang for satellite Low Earth Orbit altitude

  • LNA Low Noise Amplifier. Preamplifier between the antenna and the earth station receiver. For maximum effectiveness, it must be located as near the antenna as possible and is usually attached directly to the antenna receive port. LNA contributes the least amount of thermal noise to the received signal.

  • LNB Low Noise Block Down converter. Combination Low Noise Amplifier and down converter built into one device attached to the feed.

  • Local Loop Dedicated circuit between a customer premise and a CO. Sometimes used to include entrance facility service.

  • Longitude Angular distance on the earth's surface, measured east or west from the prime meridian at Greenwich, England, in degrees (or hours), minutes, and seconds.

  • MATV Master Antenna Television. Antenna system that serves a concentration of television sets such as in apartment buildings, hotels or motels.

  • Mbps Megabits per second.

  • MCPC Multiple Channel Per Carrier -- digital services used for transmission of multiple channels of audio, video, and data information over a single wideband carrier.

  • MEO Slang for satellite Medium Earth Orbit altitude

  • MHz Megahertz. Frequency equal to one million Hz, or cycles per second.

  • Microwave Terrestrial method of transmission which travels from point to point.

  • Modem Contraction of Modulator and Demodulator. Device used to convert digital data to and from a form for transmission over telephone circuits, terrestrial radio circuits, satellite circuits, etc.

  • Modulation Process of manipulating the frequency or amplitude of a carrier in relation to an incoming video, voice, or data signal.

  • Modulator A device which converts the video signal and audio signal onto a viewable TV channel; "RF Modulator", meaning "Radio Frequency Modulator".

  • MORELOS Mexican domestic communications satellite.

  • Multiplexing Techniques that allow a number of simultaneous transmissions over a single circuit.

  • MUX Multiplexer. Device that both combines multiple data sources into a single data stream for transmission, and de multiplexes the single data stream into its composite forms.

  • Net Return Downlink used by networks so they can view their final transmission.

  • NF Noise Figure. Figure of merit of a device, such as an LNA or receiver, expressed in dB, which compares the device with a perfect device.

  • Noise Any unwanted and un-modulated energy that is always present to some extent within any signal.

  • NPR Noise to Power Ratio -- a measure of inter-mode noise in a multiplexed communications channel.

  • NTSC Color TV system established by the US National Television Standards Committee and used in North America, Latin America, parts of South America, Japan, Korea and the Philippines. NTSC produces interlaced 525-line 30 frame/second picture.

  • Occasional Satellite Time Satellite services provided in increments of 15 minutes or more. Recurring services are available at discounted rates.

  • OEM Original Equipment Manufacture.

  • Orbit The path of a satellite as it revolves around earth primarily to the force of gravity.

  • Orbital Slot Longitudinal position in the geo synchronous orbit into which a communications satellite is positioned. Above the United States, communications satellites are typically positioned in slots based at two to three degree intervals.

  • PAL Phase Alteration Line -- The color television broadcast standard used in the UK, most of Europe, Africa, Australia and South America. PAL produces interlaced 625-line, 25 frame per second pictures.

  • Parabolic Antenna Satellite TV antenna that is shaped like a parabola. Focuses weak microwave signal hitting the surface of the dish into a single focal point in front of the dish. It is at this point that the feed horn is usually located.

  • Pay-Per-View A system whereby a cable or DBS customer can order individual programs, such as films or sporting events.

  • Playback Playing pre-recorded video material in any format.

  • PLL or Phase-Locked Loop. Type of electronic circuit used to demodulate satellite signals.

  • Polarity Satellites can deliver 2 transponders on approximately the same frequency by sending alternating horizontal and vertical polarization.

  • Point-To-Point Service provided between two Points-of-Presence/Customer Premise (s)

  • Point-To-Multipoint Service provided one-way from one POP/Customer Premise to Multiple POPs /customer Premise.

  • POP or Point-Of-Presence. Location of an inter exchange carrier's presence (i.e., equipment center) within a particular market.

  • POTS Plain Old Telephone Service PTT Post, Telephone, and Telegraph Authority -- Operating agencies controlled by governments and in charge of telecommunications for the country (eg: in the USA, we have the FCC).

  • Private Network Network that is not implemented to an industry-accepted standard. Typically refers to a proprietary product that will not operate with another vendor's product.

  • QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying. Digital modulation scheme used in transmission communications to allow increased sending capacity.

  • Quantum Physics Unit of measurement especially a discrete quantity of electromagnetic radiation

  • Real Time A term used to describe any system which operates such that input, processing, and output take place over a short period of time and without any long delays or storage of input or of intermediate or final results.

  • Reflector Commonly a parabolic dish used to gather signal for the antenna.

  • RF Radio Frequency; All radio, TV, satellite and similar signals occupy positions on the radio frequency band.

  • RF Modulator Radio Frequency Modulator. A device which converts the video signal and audio signal onto a viewable TV channel.

  • RSS (short for really simple syndication) is an XML-based format for news distribution that includes headlines, summaries and links back to a publisher website for the full article.

  • Rx Satellite receiving

  • Satellite Sophisticated electronic communications relay station orbiting 22,237 miles above the equator, moving in a fixed orbit at the same speed and direction of the earth (about 7,000 mph east to west).

  • Satellite Link or Satellite Hop A radio link between a transmitting earth station and receiving earth station through one satellite. A link consists of 1 uplink and a min. of 1 downlink.

  • SCPC Single Channel Per Carrier -- a narrowband transmission mode used to relay a single channel of audio, video and data information over a single carrier.

  • Scrambling Altering a video signal transmission so it cannot be received without an authorized operating decoder

  • SFD Saturation Flux Density -- power required to achieve saturation of a single repeater channel on the satellite.

  • Shared Hub satellite communications operations center that is shared among several separate network users; often used for VSAT operations.

  • Simplex Transmission in one direction only.

  • Skyswitch A TIW Systems, Inc. product which provides voice and data communications via satellite -- used in some SNG vehicles.

  • SMATV Satellite Master Antenna Television. Or private cable, a miniature cable system that receives programming by satellite and serves a housing complex or hotel.

  • S/N or Signal to Noise Ratio. Ratio of the signal power and noise power. A video S/N of 54 to 56 dB is considered to be an excellent S/N, that is, of broadcast quality. A video S/N of 48 to 52 dB is considered to be a good S/N at the head end for Cable TV.

  • SNG Satellite News Gathering (vehicle); Also referred to as SNV and satellite truck.

  • Solar Outage Outage that occurs when the sun passes behind or near the satellite and within the field of view of the antenna. This field of view is usually wider than the beam width. Timing of solar outages can be exactly predicted for each site.

  • Space Segments Service availability for occasional or full-time use on satellite transponders.

  • Spectrum Range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used in transmission of voice, data, and television.

  • Spot Beam A focused high-power satellite signal that covers only a small region.

  • Standard Conversions The process used to convert one video standard to another (eg: NTSC to PAL).

  • Sub Carrier Secondary signal paired with another the primary signal on the main carrier. For example, in satellite television transmission, the video picture is transmitted over the main carrier, and the corresponding audio is sent via an FM sub carrier. Some satellite transponders carry as many as four special audio or data sub carriers whose signals may or may not be related to the main programming.

  • Sync or Synchronization. Process of orienting the transmitter and receiver circuits so that transmit in harmony. Home television sets are synchronized by an incoming sync signal with the television cameras in the studios 60 times per second. The horizontal and vertical hold controls on the television set are used to set the receiver circuits to the approximate sync frequencies of incoming television picture, and the sync pulses in the signal then fine tunes the circuits to the exact frequency and phase.

  • Syndication To sell (a television series, for example) directly to independent stations

  • Tariff The established rate for and specifications of a telecommunication service.

  • Teleport A complex of earth stations used for satellite transmissions, receptions, and turnarounds.

  • T1 Transmission bit rate of 1.544 millions bits per second. Also equivalent to the ISDN Primary Rate Interface for the U.S.

  • T3 Digital channel that communicates at 45.304 Mbps. Available in North America.

  • Terrestrial Earth, land, or ground-based telecommunications systems

  • TI or TERRESTRIAL INTERFERENCE - Microwave or electrical interference from a terrestrial (earth) source which creates problems in receiving a clear program signal at the downlink.

  • Transponder The part of a satellite which picks up signals from earth, translates them into a new frequency, amplifies them, and transmits them back to earth; A single repeater channel on-board a satellite.

  • Transmitter Electronic device consisting of oscillator, modulator and other circuits which produce a radio or television electromagnetic wave signal for radiation into the atmosphere by an antenna.

  • Turnaround The act of downlink a satellite signal, altering it, and uplink it again right away. Often used to change the signal from Ku-band to C-band and vice-versa.

  • TVRO Acronym for TeleVision Receive Only -- A receive only C or Ku-band downlink.UHF Ultra High Frequency designates the ITU radio frequency range of electromagnetic waves between 300 MHz and 3 GHz (3,000 MHz) Currently used to deliver HiDef broadcast and local network TV

  • TWTA Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier. High-power RF slow wave amplifier commonly used in spacecraft transponders and earth station HPA equipment.

  • UHDTV Ultra High Definition Television also known as Ultra HD television, UltraHD, UHDTV, or UHD includes 4K UHD (2160p) and 8K UHD (4320p) used for displays that have an aspect ratio of at least 16:9 and at least one digital input capable of carrying and presenting native video at a minimum resolution of 3840×2160 pixels

  • Uplink The satellite dish and electronics which transmit the signal; can be fixed or portable; Fixed uplinks are frequently called earth stations; Also used to refer to the act of transmitting a signal to a satellite.

  • VHF Very High Frequency is the ITU-designated range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Common uses are Broadcast HDTV, FM radio broadcasting, land mobile stations (emergency, business, private use and military), long range data communication up to several tens of kilometres with radio modems, amateur radio, and marine communications.

  • Video Conference The connection of two or more groups via satellite or codec technology.

  • Video Switching Process of electronically switching a video/ audio signal between locations

  • Virtual Reality or VR computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional image or environment that can be interacted with in a seemingly real or physical way by a person using special electronic equipment, such as a helmet with a screen inside or gloves fitted with sensors.

  • VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal; One/two way earth station 0.5- 3 meters in size.

  • Webcast Broadcast of an event or a recording of an event over the World Wide Web